Definitions of some Japanese Go Terms

TEN VERY COMMON GO TERMS, for which there is no exact English word
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Atari      Dame       Go        Gote      Hane
Ko         Komi       Moyo      Seki      Sente

TEN MORE COMMONLY USED GO TERMS, for which (ditto)
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Dango      Fuseki    Joseki    Kakari     Miai
Ponnuki    Shimari   Tenuki    Tesuji

FIVE COMMON GO TOURNAMENT TERMS
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Byo-yomi   Dan       Komi      Kyu       Nigiri


Go Definitions


Aji (taste): Latent threats or possibilities existing in a situation. Ajikeshi (aji erasure): A play which removes aji. Aji ga warui (bad aji): A position which leaves aji for the opponent to use. Aki-san-kaku (empty triangle): The shape of the three Black stones, the elbow point being vacant. Generally bad shape, see guzumi. Amarigatachi: Play where one feels one has made good moves, when in fact one has accomplished little. Ate (Atari): An immediate threat to capture; a single liberty remains. A verbal warning is often issued when placing an opponent into ate. Atekomi (aim inside): Uncertain, but seems related to a peeping move. Atsumi (thickness): Strong formation of stones facing the center or facing along a side. Basami: Pincer (same as hasami). ikken basami: 1-step pincer (on 3rd line); taka-basami (4th line) nikken basami: 2-step pincer (on 3rd line) " " sangen basami: 3-step pincer (on 3rd line) " " Bata-bata: A tesuji connection. -bane, -basami, -biraki See hane, hasami, hiraki. Boshi (hat): A capping move. Botsugi: A connection which forms a wall of three stones. Byo-yomi: Extra count-down time after regular clock time has elapsed. Chosen: Eternal life; a rare position involving repetitive capture. Chuban[sen]: The middle game. Daidaigeima (very large knight's move): Four across and one vertically (or vice versa). Dame (useless): A neutral point, territory for neither; a liberty. Damezumari: Shortage of liberties. Dan: Advanced grade. Dango (dumpling shape): A solid mass of stones; a very inefficient shape. De (go between): A move which pushes between two enemy stones. Degiri: A sequence of two moves which push and cut. Fukure: Swell outward. Furikawari: Exchange (of territories). Fuseki: The opening moves of the game where influence and territory outlines are formed (literally: 'no stones'). Geta: A method of capturing an enemy stone; a net trap. The shape of the stones resembles a wooden clog. Gote: Defensive play, loss of initiative (literally: 'lower hand'). Gote no sente: Gote move with sente potential. Guru guru mawashi: "spinning around (into dango)". A series of attacks leading to a loose ladder and capture. Guzumi: A good empty triangle. Hai: Crawl. Hamari: Fall into a trap. Hamete: A trap. Hana-tsuke: Nose attachment. Hane: A diagonal move played in contact with an enemy stone. Hane-dashi: Outer hane. Hane-kaeshi: Counter-hane. Hane-komi: Hane between two stones. Hane-tsuki: Belly attack. Shita-hane: Hane underneath. Hanami ko ('flower-viewing ko'): Ko where one player stands to lose a lot, but the other only a tiny amount. Hara-tsuke: Belly attack. Hasami (pincer play): A play that attacks by preventing the opponent's extension down either side (see Basami). Hasami-tsuke: Pincer attachment. Hazama: Balance point. Hazama-tobi: One point diagonal jump. Hiki: Draw back. Hikkuri-kaeshi: Self-reversing sequence. Hiraki: 3rd or 4th line extension. Honte: The proper move. Horikomi (throw-in): A single stone played as a sacrifice. Hoshi: ('star point') the 4-4 point. Ichi ban: A win by ten points or less. Ichigo-masu: Carpenter's square. Igo: An alternative name for Go. Ikken-tobi: One point extension. Insei: Student professional. Ippoji: One large area. Ishi-no-shita: Under the stones (a particular tesuji). Ishi: Stone. Ji Dori Go: Derisive term for 'ground-taking go'. Jigo: Drawn game (by equal territory). Jingasa: Double empty triangle (4 in a "T"). Joseki (established stones): Known sequences of moves near the corner which result in near-equal positions for white and black. Jun Kan Ko: A very rare position involving repetitive capture. Kado: Angle. Kagame: False eye. Kakae: Grip. Kakari (approach): A move that attacks a single enemy corner stone. Prevented by shimari. Karami: Splitting. Kata-sente: One-sided sente. Katatsuki (shoulder hit): A play on a diagonal of the opponent's stone. Katatsugi: A solid connection. Kake: Press down. Kaketsugi (hanging connection): A open connection. An example is three stones surrounding an empty point. Promise for eye shape, but can be attacked. Katachi: The shape of the stones. Sabaki: Quick development, light shape. Karui: Single move basic to formation of flexible shape. Omoi: Heavy, clumped shape. Keima: Knight's move extension. Keima-tsugi: Knight's move connection. Keima-watari: Connection at edge of board by keima. Keshi: Erasure. Kikashi: A forcing move, usually made outside the main flow of play. Often answered, then ignored, to be used later in the game. Kiri: Cut. Kiri-chigae: Cross-cut. Kiri-nobi: Cut then extend. Ko: Repetitive capture (literally 'eternity') Ko threat: Intervening move (that one hopes will force a reply) before a ko can be recaptured. -komi: To go into. Komi: Score adjustment usually penalising black for playing first. Often 6.5 points. Komoku: ('small point') 3-4 point. Korigatachi(frozen shape): Inefficient or ugly shape. Kosumi: A diagonal play next to one's own stone. Kosumi-tsuke: A kosumi which is also a tsuke. Kyu: Learner grade. Leg: Term used by James Davies for a jogged end of a group. Weak leg refers to a diagonal extension. Magari (turn): A play which turns a group, forming a corner. Mane Go: Mirror go. White playing symmetrically opposite black. Mannen Ko: "10,000 year ko" (a special formation where whoever starts the attack must find the first ko-threat). Me: Eye or point. Me ari me nashi: A semeai in which one player has one eye. Miai: Two points which accomplish the same result; if deprived of one, the other must be played. Mochi-komi: Botched invasion. Modori: Fall back. Moku: Same as 'me'. Mokuhazushi ('point-detached'): 3-5 point. Motare: Roundabout attack. Moyo: Large potential territory. Mukai-komoku: Symmetrically opposite komoku played in fuseki. Mushobu: Literally "no-win-loss". Abandoned game (due to triple ko or similar). Nadare: Avalanche joseki. Naka-de: Central placement. Nakade: Unsettled eye shape. Naka oshi gatchi: Early victory by a large margin. Narabi: Adjacent extension from a non-contact point. Nidan bane (double hane): Two successive hane plays by one player. Nidan osae (double osae): Two successive blocks by one player. Nigiri: Equivalent of coin-toss to decide who starts. One grabs a handful of stones; the other guesses odd or even. Ni ren sei: Fuseki with two adjacent star points. Nobi (Stretch): An extension away from an opponent's tsuke, cross-cut, etc. Nobi-komi:Extend into the enemy's territory. Nozoki: A peeping move which threatens to cut. Nuki: Capture. Nurui: Lukewarm. Oba: Large fuseki point. Ogeima (large knight's move): Three across and one vertically (or vice versa). Oiotoshi: A method of capture where stones are sacrificed to destroy the enemy's eye shape. (Literally "robber's attack) Oki: Placement. Playing on a vital spot (to kill eyes). Onadare: Large avalanche joseki. Osae: A blocking move which prevents extension along a line. Oshi: Push. Oshi-tsubuki: Squashing move. Oyose: Large end-game plays. Ozaru: Monkey jump. Pintsugi: Connect between. Ponnuki: Space between four stones after capture. Ryo: Double. Sabaki: Light play; disposable stones. Sagari: To descend straight toward the edge of the board. San-ba-garosu: 'Three crows'. Corner enclosure by 5-3, 4-4, 3-5 points. Sangen: Three point interval. San ren sei: Fuseki with three adjacent star points. San-san: 3-3 point. Saru-suberi: Monkey jump. Sashikomi: Insert. Sei moku (Star points): Handicap points. Seki: A situation where neither player may place the other in ate without placing himself in ate. Stalemate, with no territory awarded. Seki-to: "Stone tower". Sacrifice of two stones at edge of board. Semeai: Race to capture. Sente: Threat forcing direct response, creates initiative. The right to choose where to play next. Opposite to gote (literally: 'upper hand'). Shibori: Squeeze play. Shicho: Ladder play. Shicho-atari: Ladder breaker. A stone played in the path of a potential shicho, threatening to make it fail. Shimari (corner enclosure): A two-stone corner formation. May not secure the corner, but attacker is at a disadvantage. Opposite of kakari. Kogeima shimari (small knight's enclosure): The 3-4 and 5-3 points. Ikken shimari (one-point enclosure): The 3-4 and 5-4 points. Ogeima shimari (large knight's enclosure): The 3-4 and 6-3 points. Shin fuseki: A revolutionary 1930's strategy. Now blended with traditional strategy to form the modern style. Shinogi: Eye-forming sequence. Shita-hane: Hane underneath. Shita-tsuke: Attach underneath. Soto: Outwards. Suberi: Sliding under. Suji: Style; skilfulness. Susoaki: Open skirt. Sute ishi: Sacrifice stone. Tachi: Extension adjacent to centre. Taisha: A joseki arising from an ignored low kakari to 4-3 point. Takamoku: ('high point') 4-5 point. Take-fu: Bamboo joint. Tasuki fuseki: Black playing the same in opposite corners. Tedo-mari: The last valuable end-game points. Ten gen: The centre point of the board. Tenuki: Ignoring opponent's last move to play elsewhere. Te okure: Wasted move. Tesuji ('strong hand'): The best play in a local position; skilful tactical move. Tetchu (steel post): Two stones placed in line vertically and near the edge. Tewari: Analysing by removing irrelevant stones. Tobi: Jump. Tobi-dashi: Jump out. Tobi-komi: Jump into enemy space. Tobi-magari: Jump at right angle. Tobi-tsuke: Jumping attachment. Torazu San Moku: A very rare position in the corner, where either side may capture first, but would lose points to do so. Tsugi: Connection. Tsuke: Attach. A play made in contact with an enemy stone, but not in contact with any friendly stones. Tsuke-atari: Bang against (head-on). Tsuke-giri: Attach then cut. Tsuke-kaeshi: Counter-attach. Tsuke-koshi: Attach at keima waist. Tsuke-nobi: Attach and extend (handicap joseki). Tsume: Extension preventing an enemy extension. Tsume-go: Life and death problems. Tsuppari: Slap against (sideways). Uchi: Inwards. Uchikaki: Sacrifice on first line to make an eye false. Uchikomi: Playing to invade enemy territory. Uttegaeshi: Snap-back. Warikomi: Wedge between two stones. Wariuchi: A wedging move which has room for expansion in either direction. Watari: To connect underneath. Wei Chi: The Chinese name for Go (literally: "game of encirclement"). Yose: End game. Yose-ko: A ko of little value. Yosu miru: Probe; to see opponent's response. May be sacrificed. Yurumi: Loose. Zoku-suji: False or vulgar style.


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